40 Countries That No Longer Exist
What makes a country a powerhouse can also be the very thing that leads to its demise. When it comes to the success of countries and their ability to remain a cohesive mix of culture, politics and general survival of its people, bigger is not always better. For those that believe in karma, that card could be played in some of the examples below of some things just not being meant to happen.
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (commonly referred to as the Soviet Union for short) lasted from 1922, following the Bolshevik and February Revolutions, until its collapse in 1991.
Assuming power in 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev’s lauded reforms gave the republics more control, but this came after decades of totalitarian governing that pressed industrialization at all costs and formed a severe divide between social classes. The wealthy lived like kings, while the majority of the population were on the verge of starvation.
Source: The Collapse of the Soviet Union
Yugoslavia officially existed under a variety of governmental banners and names from 1929 until 2003, when it was split into seven different countries. It started as a federation of six republics that each retained their linguistic, ethnic and cultural identities while maintaining separate parliaments and individual presidents:
After a complicated history of deadly ethnic battling and regional disputes, Slovenia and Croatia seceded from the Yugoslav federation in 1991, which began the final slow demise of the former Yugoslavia in 2003.
After the Austrian Empire was defeated in the Austro-Prussian war in 1866, Franz Joseph I, the Emperor of Austria, turned to Hungary and its nobility for support. The signing of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 united the two countries.
Despite Franz Joseph’s death in November of 1916, and the succession of his nephew Charles who attempted to withdraw peacefully from the war, the Austro-Hungarian Empire (and Germany) ultimately were defeated; by 1918, the Dual Monarchy was no more.
Source: The collapse of Austria-Hungary
East and West Germany
When the Soviets implemented the Berlin Blockade on June 24, 1948, less than 24 hours after it was announced that the Western-controlled zones of Germany would have one single currency. Communism took the East, democracy took the West.
After Hungary opened its borders with Austria in 1989, thousands of East Germans flew the coop. The Berlin Wall collapsed (along with relations with the Soviet Union) soon afterward, and the rest is history.
Source: Berlin Wall
Spanning six centuries from 1299-1922, the Ottoman Empire was comprised of what is now Turkey, parts of Russia, Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Jordan, Lebanon, Egypt, Israel, Macedonia, Romania, Syria, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa.
This powerhouse even joined its former enemy the Habsburgs on the same side in the First World War. Although the Ottoman Empire made it out of the war, beaten, but relatively in one piece, it was dismantled by the victorious Allied powers.
Tibet existed peacefully under the Republic of China from 1912-1950 with plenty of autonomy. But when the Communist Party of China formed in 1921 and Mao Zedong took over party leadership in 1927, Tibet and its young leader, the Dalai Lama, had every reason to start feeling nervous.
After months of failed negotiations and a tense build-up of armed forces along their borders, the People’s Republic of China invaded Tibet to claim the territory for its own.
Source: Tibet’s History
The Ethiopian Empire was known as Abyssinia up until the 20th century and its most recent Emperor was Haile Selassie I, a notable figure in Rastafarian culture, ruling as head of the Solomonic dynasty from 1930-1974.
Surviving the Abyssinia Crisis/Wal Wal incident, the Mussolini-coordinated occupation during World War II and the colonization of Eastern Africa, the monarchy of Abyssinia was eventually ousted in a coup d’état by the Derg, or Coordinating Committee of the Armed Forces, Police and Territorial Army, in 1974.
Source: Manchuria and Abyssinia
Officially known as the Republic of Vietnam, South Vietnam was short-lived as far as countries go. From 1955 to 1975, as you would expect from its name, this country could be found in what is now the south half of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, fell without much resistance to North Vietnam in April of 1975 and the city and country unconditionally surrendered, effectively ending South Vietnam. The unified Socialist Republic of Vietnam was declared on July 2, 1976.
Source: The Fall Of South Vietnam
Located in the Mediterranean Sea between Italy and France, Corsica is an island that has passed in ownership between the two nations over the years. While the island has been around and occupied since the time of the Ancient Greeks (and before), it is perhaps most famous for being the birthplace of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Corsica is now considered a “single territorial collectivity of France,” meaning that it is officially ruled by the French government but it does have a certain amount of autonomy for self-governance.
Originally given the name Ceilão by the Portuguese in 1505, this South Asia island 31 kilometers (19 miles) off the southern coast of India came under the control of the British in 1802. The new name bestowed upon this Commonwealth republic was Ceylon.
Ceylon gained independence from Britain on February 4, 1948, not unlike other former British colonies (for example, Canada and Australia). Seven years later, the Dominion of Ceylon was admitted to the United Nations, changing its name to Sri Lanka in 1972.
Source: A Brief History of Sri Lanka
Burma / Myanmar
Myanmar is a sovereign state in the region of Southeast Asia. Made up of over 130 ethnic groups, Burma was once part of British India, The country but went on to declare official independence from Britain in 1948.
Since the beginning of Burma’s independent parliament, there have been problems. The country has been witness to countless human rights conflicts and violations. This included systematic sexual violence and human trafficking, child, forced and slave labor.
In 550 BC, the Achaemenid Empire (also known as the First Persian Empire) conquered wide swaths of territory including areas of the Middle East, Europe, Africa, and Asia. The center of the empire remained in the Middle East (around modern Iran), and it most recently existed between 1501 and 1925.
The government was overthrown by a coup d’état in 1921 and a legislative body was convened to vote and officially exclude the Qajar dynasty from any further control of Persia, which became modern Iran.
Source: Persian Empire
At times one of the most powerful empires in Southeast Asia, the Bengal Empire covered modern-day Bangladesh and much of the surrounding area.
Bengalis played a large part in the Indian Independence movement, and while some wished for the British to leave a reunited Bengal when they departed, the region was partitioned according to religious and ethnic groups. The area remains as one of the most densely populated regions in the world and is home to more than a quarter of a billion people.
Source: Rise and Fall Of Bengal
Siam was an absolute monarchy for seven centuries, from 1238 to 1932, until an internal revolution backed by the Khana Ratsadon (People’s Party) occurred—then it became a constitutional monarchy.
In 1939, Siam came under the fascist military rule and sided with Japan in World War II. When the tide turned in favor of the Allied forces, it made peace with the West, while carefully trying not to snub Japan. Siam officially became Thailand in 1949.
Source: History of Thailand
After the Congo gained independence from Belgium, there ensued the Congo Crisis, from 1960-65. This formed the perfect backdrop for the totalitarian dictator Mobutu Sese Seko and his Popular Movement of the Revolution Party to seize power via a military coup in 1965.
On October 27, 1971, the country officially became the Republic of Zaire. Mobutu fled Zaire after the rebellion against him, and the name the Democratic Republic of the Congo was restored to the country on May 17, 1997.
The United Arab Republic
Although it didn’t last for long, the United Arab Republic’s (UAR) formation in 1958 represented a celebration of Arab culture, nationalism, solidarity and its contributions to the world.
Egypt’s Gamal Abdel Nasser and Syrian president Shukri al-Kuwatli embraced this upswing of Pan-Arabism and became political allies. The idea of a united Arab nation lost any momentum it initially carried when oil-rich countries such as Iraq, decided to pass. Syria seceded in 1961, three years after the formation of the UAR.
Source: United Arab Republic
In the long list of countries changing “hands” repeatedly, and eventually merging with other nations, our catalog would be incomplete were we not to mention present-day Tanzania.
From 1961 until 1964, an even shorter run than Texas, Tanganyika was a sovereign state, gaining independence from the United Kingdom on December 9, 1961, and become a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations one year later.
Zanzibar (then, and as it is still known) was comprised of the series of islands less than 50 kilometers (30 miles) off the coast of Tanzania in the Indian Ocean.
The archipelago is a semi-autonomous region now but it switched hands from Arab rule and became a British Protectorate in 1890, and much like it’s neighbor Tanganyika, gained its independence shortly thereafter on December 19, 1963.
Source: History Of Zanzibar
United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
Alas, only one year later, the Sultan was overthrown, and the People’s Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba joined Tanganyika officially as the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar on April 26, 1964.
If you think one year is short, consider that only seven months later, on October 29, the country changed its name once more, this time combining the “Tan” from Tanganyika and the “Zan” from Zanzibar. That’s right: The United Republic of Tanzania.
From 1918 to 1935, Czechoslovakia was a peacefully functioning parliamentary democracy, while at the same time becoming Eastern Europe’s leading example of industrial advancement. Following World War Two, the Communist system got its foot in the door when U.S.S.R. troops liberated Czechoslovakia from Axis control.
The Velvet Revolution of 1989 prompted the Communist Party to step down. Czechoslovakia peacefully split into two nations: the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic — and aimed to keep a common currency with open trade.
Source: Dissolution of Czechoslovakia
In 1890 Rhodesia was settled by the British and the area became a war zone between the white minority and locals. For 100 years, Rhodesia was a British colony that gradually evolved into a country fighting both within itself while at the same time battling to gain its independence from Britain.
In 1980, Rhodesia held elections to decide its fate as a colony in the Commonwealth. It was decided by voters that Rhodesia would declare its independence and call itself Zimbabwe.
Sikkim has a population of only 619,000 people — and they speak 11 official languages. It sits nestled in the Himalayas with Nepal, Tibet and West Bengal as neighbors.
By the mid-1970s, the Sikkimese were fed up with the monarchy that had ruled the country for over 300 years. After a rebellion against the monarchy in 1973, a referendum was held in 1975 that saw the majority of voters casting a ballot in favor of Sikkim becoming one of India’s 29 states instead.
Source: History of Sikkim
The Kingdom of Hawaii became a nation under one government and was guaranteed independence by Great Britain and France in 1843. The United States were Hawaii’s principal trading partner, and they feared someone like Japan or Britain would take control of something they wanted. Hawaii’s King Kalākaua was forced at gunpoint to adopt a new constitution in 1887.
1898 saw the annexation of Hawaii, it’s conversion to a republic, followed by the creation of the Territory of Hawaii by Congress. Hawaii became America’s 50th state on August 21, 1959.
Source: Hawaii becomes 50th state
The Republic of Texas
Another eventual annexation to the United States in December of 1845, Texas was once a republic. It gained independence from Mexico in 1836, only 15 years after Mexico won its war of independence from Spain in 1821.
The Republic of Texas enjoyed a decade under its new flag before joining 10 other states in the Confederacy, and eventually the Union, due to the American Civil War.
Source: The Republic of Texas
Catalonia is a separate cultural and linguistic group within the Spanish Republic and has been lobbying for independence for years, but it hasn’t quite achieved it completely.
As it stands, Catalonians have tried several times in the last four years to hold referendums in an attempt to gain their independence from Spain; most recently in October of 2017 when violence erupted. At the time, the Spanish courts blocked the vote due to its unconstitutionality.
Source: Catalonia profile – Timeline
The Great Republic of Rough and Ready
The small, ghostly town of Rough and Ready, located in Nevada County, California, has less than a thousand residents nowadays, but once this place was an independent state.
The town was founded in 1849 for the needs of a mining company from Wisconsin, which settled workers there during the California Gold Rush. In April the following year, Captain A. A. Townsend declared the Great Republic of Rough and Ready independent of the Union. After only three months they voted themselves back in.
Source: Rough and Ready
Basutoland, or the Basotho Kingdom, was an independent country of southern Africa that was formed in the 19th century when a local chief united scattered tribes in an attempt to stop oncoming invaders.
In the 1830s, the chief was proclaimed King Moshoeshoe I and the land he controlled with his tribes became the Basotho Kingdom. His reign was marked by a series of conflicts which forced him to turn to the British for help. Basutoland became Lesotho in 1966.
The India – Pakistan War of 1971 lasted only 13 days, but the signing of the truce in this war marked the decline of one state and the beginning of another.
East Pakistan was established in 1955 when the government of Pakistan implemented its One Unit plan, turning East Bengal into East Pakistan. In less than two decades, the territory of East Pakistan was lost in the India – Pakistan War and Bangladesh was born.
A group of nine volcanic islands in the Polynesian region of the Pacific Ocean known as Samoa was ruled by the German Empire from the beginning of the twentieth century until the start of the First World War.
In 1914 New Zealand took over Western Samoa and continued to administer it until the Samoan people voted for independence in 1961. Western Samoa officially became sovereign in 1962. The name of the country was changed from Western Samoa to Samoa in 1997.
Source: Samoa country profile
The Republic of Gran Colombia was established in 1821 by Venezuelan military and political leader Simon Bolivar. The new state included parts of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama and Ecuador, with Bogota as its capital city.
Unfortunately, Bolivar’s vision turned out to be a short-lived experiment filled with conflicts between those who supported him and others who wanted a less centralized government. After 10 years of struggles, Gran Colombia unceremoniously fell apart.
The Kingdom of Champa was settled in mainland Southeast Asia in what is now Vietnam. Throughout its 1,500 years, Champa was an influential regional power in Asia but remained virtually unknown to Westerners.
Champa maintained turbulent relations with China and India, but often fought with the Vietnamese. At the end of the 14th century, Vietnam conquered a large part of the kingdom. Its run as a country came to an end in 1720.
New Kingdom of Granada
The New Kingdom of Granada was founded in the 16th century with the aim to unite a series of colonial provinces, including Inca and Tairona in South America. This new state was mostly governed by Peru until 1717, when it became the Viceroyalty of New Granada.
This new administration was relatively short-lived and went ahead with minimal changes to the state before it was incorporated into what would become Gran Colombia in 1821.
Source: New Kingdom of Granada
The name Prussia refers to a few areas, from the regions of eastern and central Europe and later as a state established after the fall of the Von Hohenzollerns dynasty at the end of World War II.
After the rise of the Nazi Party and Adolf Hitler as its leader in 1933, Prussia was downgraded and existed only as an administrative unit until its end in 1945, when it was divided between the Allies.
Scotland is situated in the northern part of the United Kingdom, but during the course of its long and complex history it has been settled and invaded many times by various groups and nations, from the first settlers in the Palaeolithic era to Romans and Vikings.
The documented history of Scotland started with the coming of the Roman Empire. Even though it is a constant source of debate, Scotland technically now falls under the authority of the United Kingdom.
Source: Is Scotland A Country?
South West Africa
South West Africa was a German colony from the late 19th century until the end of the First World War. Presently known as Namibia, it initially took root as a trading post in southwest Africa at Angra Pequena in 1883.
By the late 1880s, the German government took over the colony’s administration and managed to keep it until the Great War, at which point the territory was handed over to the League of Nations.
Source: German South West Africa
As a part of the Chinese empire, this region in southern Siberia was known as Tannu Tuva. When the Russian Empire decided to take it over by starting a separatist movement in 1911, the new country was named the Urjanchai Republic.
The official independence of the republic was proclaimed ten years later, in 1921, but it was annexed again and put under the flag of the Soviet Union in 1944. Today, what is now the Tuva Republic is a federal subject of Russia.
Taiwan is officially the part of the Republic of China, but during its long history it has had several foreign rulers. The strongest influences have always come from China, yet the Europeans have also “helped” shape its past.
Starting in the early 17th century, Dutch and Spanish pioneers were establishing their bases and trading centers in Taiwan and even considered it their colony, but the Chinese were never willing to abandon their plans for this territory.
Vermont was officially the 14th state of the United States of America, even though it was the first that entered the union following the Revolution.
The people of Vermont fought for both the Americans and the British in that war, but the state wasn’t formally ratified before the conflict was over. In 1777 the people of the Green Mountain State declared their independence and named their country the Vermont Republic, a title which remained in place for 14 years.
The region of Transjordan, situated east of the Jordan River, was controlled by many different powers throughout the course of its history, including the Ottoman and British Empires.
The British came into the scene during the Great War. The territory was taken over and divided into different administrative regions, but shortly after the Hashemite sovereign was given formal rule over all of the Transjordan districts. On May 15, 1946, Transjordan became the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
Source: Creation of Transjordan
Already occupied by indigenous peoples when the Vikings first came across its shores, Newfoundland was officially on the world map once John Cabot claimed it for England. For decades afterward, Newfoundland was passed back and forth between France and England, both of which wanted it for the region’s natural resources.
Eventually, it would fall under British rule but with its close proximity to the then growing nation of Canada it would go on to join the country as a province in 1949.
Source: Newfoundland Joins Canada